Commercial Bone Grafts Claimed as an Alternative to Autografts: Current Trends for Clinical Applications in Orthopaedics




Materials 2021, 14, 3290


Govoni, M.; Vivarelli, L.; Mazzotta, A.; Stagni, C.; Maso, A.; Dallari, D.


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Abstract: In the last twenty years, due to an increasing medical and market demand for orthopaedic
implants, several grafting options have been developed. However, when alternative bone augmentation
materials mimicking autografts are searched on the market, commercially available products
may be grouped into three main categories: cellular bone matrices, growth factor enhanced bone
grafts, and peptide enhanced xeno-hybrid bone grafts. Firstly, to obtain data for this review, the
search engines Google and Bing were employed to acquire information from reports or website
portfolios of important competitors in the global bone graft market. Secondly, bibliographic databases
such as Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were also employed to analyse data from preclinical/
clinical studies performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of each product released on the
market. Here, we discuss several products in terms of osteogenic/osteoinductive/osteoconductive
properties, safety, efficacy, and side effects, as well as regulatory issues and costs. Although both
positive and negative results were reported in clinical applications for each class of products, to date,
peptide enhanced xeno-hybrid bone grafts may represent the best choice in terms of risk/benefit
ratio. Nevertheless, more prospective and controlled studies are needed before approval for routine
clinical use.


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